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Kentucky’s Blue Fugates: A Deep Dive Into Rare Genetic Tale

Written By Monika Soni
Last updated: September 6, 2023

Have you ever heard about a family in the hills of Kentucky with blue skin? Yes, you read it right—blue skin. Known as the Blue Fugates, this fascinating family’s existence may seem like something straight out of a science fiction novel, but it’s deeply rooted in reality and science.

In this article, we’re going to dive into the intriguing story of this unique family and the peculiar genetic trait that made them stand out – literally.

From the origins of the Fugate Family to the intriguing science behind their distinctively blue skin, prepare to have your mind enlightened and intrigued. Buckle up for an exploration of nature’s amazing quirks and curiosities.

The Early Beginnings of the Fugate Family

The Early Beginnings of the Fugate Family

The Fugates were noted for an unusual genetic trait that has carried across several generations – an eerily yet mesmerizing blue skin color. This unique characteristic can be traced back to their origins.

Background and History

The roots of this lineage began with a French orphan, Martin Fugate, who arrived in the isolated rural community of Troublesome Creek located in Kentucky around 1820. He married a local woman named Elizabeth Smith, who was noted for her strikingly pale complexion.

Unbeknownst to either of them at that time, they both carried a rare recessive gene for methemoglobinemia, which gave rise to generations of blue-skinned descendants.

Settling into Kentucky

The inhospitable landscape and challenging living conditions meant it was rugged and harsh. The remoteness only served to isolate the fledgling ‘blue’ family from others, which inadvertently led to intermarriage within the clan due to the lack of newcomers moving into their secluded area.

This made it possible for this unusual genetic trait to be passed down through their generations without interruption, giving rise to the ‘Blue Fugates of Kentucky’.

The Phenomenon Behind Their Unique Blue Skin

Everything You Need To Know About The Blue Fugates Of Kentucky

The unique blue skin of the Fugates was a result of a rare medical condition known as methemoglobinemia. This is a blood disorder that results in an abnormally high level of methemoglobin – a form of hemoglobin. Instead of the normal red color that gives our skin its pinkish hue, it’s blue.

Explaining Methemoglobinemia

Methemoglobinemia is a rare blood disorder characterized by increased levels of methemoglobin. Methemoglobin is a variant form of hemoglobin, the molecule in red blood cells responsible for transporting oxygen to body tissues.

Normal hemoglobin releases this oxygen and reflects back a red color. However, with increased methemoglobin, not much oxygen gets released, and it reflects back as blue instead.

How Did Fugates Have Methemoglobinemia?

Much later in time, medical science honed in on the reason for this unique phenomenon among the Fugates. Dr. Madison Cawein III, a hematologist from the University of Kentucky, discovered that their bluish tint was due to inherited methemoglobinemia when he studied the family in the 1960s.

He traced back their lineage to an original couple who were carriers of this recessive gene mutation, causing excess production of methemoglobin.

Due to intermarriage within their community over generations, this gene mutation was propagated, leading to multiple family members with this unusual trait- turning skin blue under certain conditions.

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Are There Still Blue Fugates?

Are There Still Blue Fugates?

Today, while decidedly rare, there are still Blue Fugates walking among us. Over the years, due to the mixing of gene pools and advancements in science and medicine, the number of individuals carrying this distinctive blue hue has significantly dwindled.

How Many Are Reportedly Left Today

It’s difficult to quantify the exact number of the remaining people with this particular genetic trait. This is primarily due to the fact that methemoglobinemia, the cause of their blue skin, is recessive. That means that it will only surface when a person inherits two copies of the gene – one from each parent.

As there had been an influx of people from outside Troublesome Creek over generations, it diluted the concentration of methemoglobinemia gene carriers in Fugate descendants. The last known descendant with a pronounced blue color was Benjy Stacy, who was born in 1975.

After initial glimpses of his striking blue color at birth faded away to more ‘normal’ skin tones as he aged.

Interesting Cases

Among some fascinating cases exists that of Martin “Marty” Allemand Fugate Sr., born in 1951 and died in 2019. Marty carried this unique bloodline but didn’t appear blue thanks to his grandmother Francis Martine “Tine” Stacy choosing a partner outside the carriers – weakening the presence of this trait.

Yet, one intriguing instance pops out when Marty cut his hand during prison – instead of the bright red blood people expected, it was chocolate brown – a primary sign he carried the methemoglobinemia gene.

To summarize – yes – descendants from the Blue Fugates lineage still exist today, but they don’t appear ‘blue,’ largely due to genetic dilution over centuries and medical interventions.

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Blue Fugates & Their Descendants Life After

Blue Fugates & Their Descendants Life After

The lives of the Blue Fugates took quite a fascinating turn as time went by. Medical phenomena aside, they adapted and evolved, paving the path for their descendants.

How Life Evolved for Them

In later years, the Blue Fugates began to disperse and intermarry outside their immediate kin, significantly diluting the gene responsible for their unique coloration.

With increasing modernity and access to transportation, families moved out of the isolated region in Kentucky and spread out across America. The increasing gene mix decreased the likelihood of two recessive gene carriers pairing up, leading to a decline in blue-skinned descendants.

This decline was also partially due to better medical understanding and treatments that controlled methemoglobinemia, thus reducing visible symptoms.

Present Day Descendants

Successive generations have led to a significant reduction in blue-skinned individuals amongst the descendants of the original Fugate family. However, it’s important to note that not all descendants escaped the telltale trait completely.

An example is Benjamin Stacy, who was born in 1975 with a blue-tinged hue but whose color started normalizing as he grew older.

Today, it is hardly visible amongst people with Fugate family ties, suggesting that nature has largely taken its course over time. It remains a fascinating tale of genetics and human adaptation, which continues to intrigue researchers globally.

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Frequently Asked Questions

How long did the Fugates have blue skin?

The distinctive blue skin of the Fugate family was documented over approximately 7 generations, beginning in the early 19th century.

How were the Blue Fugates cured?

Technological advancements discovered that methylene blue dye could treat Methemoglobinemia, effectively reducing or eliminating the blue coloration in cases like this.

What enzyme do the Blue Fugates lack?

The Blue Fugates lacked sufficient quantities of an enzyme known as cytochrome b5 methemoglobin reductase. This enzyme is vital for maintaining normal levels of red blood cells in human bodies.


The Blue Fugates’ tale is a remarkable blend of history, genetics, and medical curiosity. It serves as a powerful reminder about the complexity of heredity and its impact on human life.

Examining their story allows us to understand better our diverse world and humankind’s ability to adapt to unique circumstances. Their legacy continues through the study of genetics and congenital disorders, making them an indelible part of the scientific community’s insight.

Charles Eames

Monika Soni is a passionate writer and history enthusiast who joined the FindingDulcinea team in July 2023. With a deep love for both ancient and political history, she brings a unique perspective to her articles, weaving together narratives that captivate and educate her readers. Monika holds a B.Sc. degree from the esteemed Govt. College of Girls, Panchkula. When she's not diving deep into historical research, Monika enjoys exploring local museums and historical sites. Her commitment to bringing history to life makes her a valuable asset to the FindingDulcinea community.

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